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Project Nike (Greek: ????, "Victory", pronounced [ni?k??]) was a U.S. Army project, proposed in May by Bell Laboratories, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. The project delivered the United States' first operational anti-aircraft missile system, the Nike Ajax, in A great number of the technologies and rocket systems used for developing the Nike Ajax were. The C25K App for iPhone Based on Josh Clark's famous Couch to 5K plan, Get Running lets you run at your own pace. It alternates walking and running for the first six weeks, to ease you into running without leaving you exhausted. The only 5K training app to be partners with MyFitnessPal for . App Store Apps can transform the way you do anything you’re passionate about, whether that’s creating, learning, playing games, or just getting more done. And the App Store is the best place to discover new apps that let you pursue your passions in ways you never thought possible.
A hybrid vehicle is one that uses two or more distinct types of power, such as submarines that use diesel when surfaced and batteries when submerged. Other means to store energy include pressurized fluid in hydraulic hybrids. The basic principle with hybrid vehicles is that the different motors work better at different speeds; the electric motor is more efficient at producing torque, or turning power, and the combustion engine is better for maintaining high speed better than a typical electric motor.
Switching from one to the other at the proper time while speeding up yields a win-win in terms of energy efficiency , as such that translates into greater fuel efficiency , for example. Mopeds , electric bicycles , and even electric kick scooters are a simple form of a hybrid, powered by an internal combustion engine or electric motor and the rider's muscles. Early prototype motorcycles in the late 19th century used the same principle. In Bernie Macdonalds conceived the Electrilite  SHB with power electronics allowing regenerative braking and pedaling while stationary.
In Thomas Muller designed and built a "Fahrrad mit elektromagnetischem Antrieb" for his diploma thesis. Until they built several prototype SH tricycles and quadricycles. A SHEPB prototype made by David Kitson in Australia  in used a lightweight brushless DC electric motor from an aerial drone and small hand-tool sized internal combustion engine , and a 3D printed drive system and lightweight housing, altogether weighing less than 4.
Active cooling keeps plastic parts from softening. The prototype uses a regular electric bicycle charge port. Hybrid power trains use diesel-electric or turbo-electric to power railway locomotives, buses, heavy goods vehicles, mobile hydraulic machinery , and ships. With large vehicles, conversion losses decrease and the advantages in distributing power through wires or pipes rather than mechanical elements become more prominent, especially when powering multiple drives — e.
Until recently most heavy vehicles had little secondary energy storage, e. Both series and parallel setups were used in WW2 submarines. China The First Hybrid Evaluating locomotive was designed by rail research center Matrai in and built in Japan Japan's first hybrid train with significant energy storage is the KiHa E , with roof-mounted lithium ion batteries.
The train has a hp engine which uses fumigation technology. The first of these trains is set to run on the 81 km long Rewari-Rohtak route. Already many transport vehicles such as auto-rickshaws and buses run on CNG fuel. It is unclear if regenerative braking is used; but in principle, it is easily utilized.
Since these engines typically need extra weight for traction purposes anyway the battery pack's weight is a negligible penalty. The existing motors and running gear are all rebuilt and reused. The advantages hybrid cars have for frequent starts and stops and idle periods apply to typical switching yard use. RTG cranes are typically used for loading and unloading shipping containers onto trains or trucks in ports and container storage yards.
The energy used to lift the containers can be partially regained when they are lowered. Hybrid systems are coming into use for trucks, buses and other heavy highway vehicles. Small fleet sizes and installation costs are compensated by fuel savings,  [ needs update ] with advances such as higher capacity, lowered battery cost, etc. Kenworth Truck Company recently introduced the Kenworth T Class 6 that for city usage seems to be competitive. The diesel engines run at a constant RPM for peak efficiency.
In students at Minneapolis, Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center, converted a Volkswagen Beetle to a petro-hydraulic hybrid with off-the shelf components. A car rated at 32 mpg was returning 75 mpg with the 60 hp engine replaced by a 16 hp engine, and reached 70 mph. Acceleration was mph in 8 seconds, using a 1. No lightweight materials were used. Since , the US military has been testing serial hybrid Humvees   and have found them to deliver faster acceleration, a stealth mode with low thermal signature , near silent operation, and greater fuel economy.
Ships with both mast-mounted sails and steam engines were an early form of a hybrid vehicle. Another example is the diesel-electric submarine. This runs on batteries when submerged and the batteries can be recharged by the diesel engine when the craft is on the surface. Newer hybrid ship-propulsion schemes include large towing kites manufactured by companies such as SkySails. Towing kites can fly at heights several times higher than the tallest ship masts, capturing stronger and steadier winds.
The fuel cell provides all power for the cruise phase of flight. During takeoff and climb, the flight segment that requires the most power, the system draws on lightweight lithium-ion batteries. The demonstrator aircraft is a Dimona motor glider, built by Diamond Aircraft Industries of Austria, which also carried out structural modifications to the aircraft.
With a wingspan of Hybrid FanWings have been designed. A FanWing is created by two engines with the capability to autorotate and landing like a helicopter. When the term hybrid vehicle is used, it most often refers to a Hybrid electric vehicle. A petroleum-electric hybrid most commonly uses internal combustion engines using a variety of fuels, generally gasoline or Diesel engines and electric motors to power the vehicle.
The energy is stored in the fuel of the internal combustion engine and an electric battery set. There are many types of petroleum-electric hybrid drivetrains , from Full hybrid to Mild hybrid , which offer varying advantages and disadvantages.
William H. Patton filed a patent application for a gasoline-electric hybrid rail-car propulsion system in early , and for a similar hybrid boat propulsion system in mid In , Henri Pieper developed the world's first petro-electric hybrid automobile. In , Ferdinand Porsche developed a series-hybrid using two motor-in-wheel-hub arrangements with an internal combustion generator set providing the electric power; Porsche's hybrid set two-speed records.
His home-converted Opel GT was reported to return as much as 75 mpg with plans still sold to this original design, and the "Mother Earth News" modified version on their website. The plug-in-electric-vehicle PEV is becoming more and more common. It has the range needed in locations where there are wide gaps with no services. The batteries can be plugged into house mains electricity for charging, as well being charged while the engine is running.
Some battery electric vehicles can be recharged while the user drives. Such a vehicle establishes contact with an electrified rail, plate, or overhead wires on the highway via an attached conducting wheel or other similar mechanisms see conduit current collection. The vehicle's batteries are recharged by this process—on the highway—and can then be used normally on other roads until the battery is discharged.
For example, some of the battery-electric locomotives used for maintenance trains on the London Underground are capable of this mode of operation. Developing an infrastructure for battery electric vehicles would provide the advantage of virtually unrestricted highway range. Since many destinations are within km of a major highway, this technology could reduce the need for expensive battery systems. However, private use of the existing electrical system is almost universally prohibited.
Besides, the technology for such electrical infrastructure is largely outdated and, outside some cities, not widely distributed see Conduit current collection , trams , electric rail , trolleys , third rail. Updating the required electrical and infrastructure costs could perhaps be funded by toll revenue or by dedicated transportation taxes. In addition to vehicles that use two or more different devices for propulsion , some also consider vehicles that use distinct energy sources or input types " fuels " using the same engine to be hybrids, although to avoid confusion with hybrids as described above and to use correctly the terms, these are perhaps more correctly described as dual mode vehicles:.
Hydraulic hybrid and pneumatic hybrid vehicles use an engine or regenerative braking or both to charge a pressure accumulator to drive the wheels via hydraulic liquid or pneumatic compressed gas drive units.
In most cases the engine is detached from the drivetrain, serving solely to charge the energy accumulator. The transmission is seamless. Regenerative braking can be used to recover some of the supplied drive energy back into the accumulator. A French company, MDI , has designed and has running models of a petro-air hybrid engine car. The system does not use air motors to drive the vehicle, being directly driven by a hybrid engine.
The engine uses a mixture of compressed air and gasoline injected into the cylinders. Petro-hydraulic configurations have been common in trains and heavy vehicles for decades. The auto industry recently focused on this hybrid configuration as it now shows promise for introduction into smaller vehicles.
The charging engine runs at optimum speed and load for efficiency and longevity. Although petro-hydraulic hybrid technology has been known for decades and used in trains as well as very large construction vehicles, the high costs of the equipment precluded the systems from lighter trucks and cars. In the modern sense, an experiment proved the viability of small petro-hydraulic hybrid road vehicles in A group of students at Minneapolis, Minnesota's Hennepin Vocational Technical Center, converted a Volkswagen Beetle car to run as a petro-hydraulic hybrid using off-the-shelf components.
In the s, a team of engineers working at EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory succeeded in developing a revolutionary type of petro-hydraulic hybrid powertrain that would propel a typical American sedan car.
The accumulator vessel size dictates total energy storage capacity and may require more space than an electric battery set. Any vehicle space consumed by a larger size of accumulator vessel may be offset by the need for a smaller sized charging engine, in HP and physical size.
Research is underway in large corporations and small companies. The focus has now switched to smaller vehicles. The system components were expensive which precluded installation in smaller trucks and cars. A drawback was that the power driving motors were not efficient enough at part load. The pump is highly efficient at all speed ranges and loads, giving feasibility to small applications of petro-hydraulic hybrids. The BMW i, gave double the mpg in city driving compared to the standard car.
This test was using the standard 3, cc engine, with a smaller engine the figures would have been more impressive. The design of petro-hydraulic hybrids using well sized accumulators allows downsizing an engine to average power usage, not peak power usage. Peak power is provided by the energy stored in the accumulator. A smaller more efficient constant speed engine reduces weight and liberates space for a larger accumulator.
It is restrictive and far from ideal to install petro-hydraulic mechanicals into existing bodies not designed for hydraulic setups. One research project's goal is to create a blank paper design new car, to maximize the packaging of petro-hydraulic hybrid components in the vehicle.
All bulky hydraulic components are integrated into the chassis of the car. One design has claimed to return mpg in tests by using a large hydraulic accumulator which is also the structural chassis of the car.
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