Internet addiction disorder
May 22, · While many people enjoy a sweet chocolate treat occasionally, for some, chocolate addiction is a very real, very difficult challenge. If you have an addiction to chocolate, you can begin to overcome your addiction by gaining a greater understanding of the causes and triggers. A chocoholic is a person who craves or compulsively consumes chocolate. The word "chocoholic" was first used in , according to Merriam-Webster. It is a portmanteau of "chocolate" and "alcoholic". The term is used loosely or humorously to describe a person who is inordinately fond of chocolate; however, there is medical evidence to support the existence of actual addiction to chocolate.
Addiciton addiction disorder IADalso known as problematic internet use or pathological internet useis generally defined as problematic, compulsive use of the internet, that results in significant curr in an individual's function in various life domains over a prolonged period of time.
Young people are at particular risk of developing internet addiction disorder. Some also suffer health consequences from loss of sleep, as they stay up later and later to chat online, check for social network status updates or to reach the next chocplate levels. Such disorders can be diagnosed when an individual engages in online activities at the cost of fulfilling daily responsibilities or pursuing other interests, and without regard for the negative consequences.
The Internet can foster various addictions including addiction to pornography, game-playing, auction sites, social networking sites, and surfing of the Web. Controversy around the diagnosis includes whether the disorder is a separate clinical entity, or a manifestation of underlying psychiatric disorders.
Research has approached the question from a variety of viewpoints, with no universally standardised or agreed definitions, leading to difficulties in developing evidence based recommendations.
As what channel is fox in the rio grande valley 12—19 years and emerging adults 20—29 years access the Internet more than any other age groups and undertake a higher risk of overuse of the Internet, the problem of Internet addiction disorder is most relevant to young people.
A longitudinal study of Chinese high school students suggests that individuals with moderate to severe risk of Internet addiction are 2. Problematic internet usage is also associated with increased risk of substance abuse. The best-documented evidence addlction Internet addiction so far is time-disruption, which subsequently results in interference with regular social life, including academic, professional performance and daily routines.
Keith W. As a result of its complex nature, some scholars do not provide a definition of Internet addiction disorder and throughout time, different terms are used to describe the same phenomenon of excessive Internet use. In some cases, this behavior what are the names of some helpful bacteria also referred to as Internet overuse, problematic computer use, compulsive Internet use, Internet abuse, harmful use of the Internet, and How to cure a chocolate addiction dependency.
Physical symptoms include a weakened immune system due to lack of sleep, loss of exercise, and increased the risk for carpal tunnel syndrome and eye and back strain. Symptoms of withdrawal might include agitation, depression, anger and anxiety when the person is away from technology. These psychological symptoms might even turn into physical symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, tense shoulders and shortness of breath. According to David Hodgins, a professor of psychology at the University of Calgary, online gambling is considered to be as serious as pathological gambling.
It is known as an "isolated disorder" which means that those who have a gambling problem prefer to curd themselves from interruptions and distractions. Because gambling is available online, it increases the opportunity for problem gamblers to indulge in gambling without social influences swaying their decisions.
This is why this disorder has become more a problem at this date in time and is why it is so difficult to overcome.
The opportunity to gamble online is almost always available in this century opposed to only having the opportunity in a public forum at cufe for example. Online gambling has become quite popular especially with today's adolescents. Today's youth has a greater knowledge of modern software and search engines along with a greater need for extra money.
So not only is it easier for them to find opportunities to gamble over any subject, but the incentive to be granted this money is desperately desired. Video game addiction is a known issue around the world.
Incidence and severity grew in the s, with how to boot xp faster advent of broadband technology, games allowing for the creation of avatars, 'second life' games, and MMORPGs massive multiplayer online role playing games. World of Warcraft has the largest MMORPG community online and there have been a number of studies about the addictive qualities of the game.
Addicts of the game range from children to mature adults. A well-known example is Ryan van Cleave, a university professor whose life declined as he became involved in online gaming.
Online gaming addiction may be considered in terms of B. Skinner 's theory of operant conditioningwhich claims that the frequency of a given behavior is directly linked to rewarding and punishment of that behavior.
If a behavior is rewarded, it is more likely to be repeated. If it is punished, it becomes suppressed. Orzack says that the best way to optimize the desired behavior in the subject is to provide rewards for addictiln behavior, and then adjust the number of times the subject is required to exhibit that behavior before a reward is provided. For instance, if a rat must press a bar to receive food, then it will press faster and more often if it does not know chocolae many times it needs to press the bar.
An equivalent in World of Warcraft would be purple epic loot drops. The rarity of the item and difficulty of acquiring the item gives the player a status amongst their peers once they obtain the item. Jim Rossignol, a finance journalist who reports on Internet gaming has described how he overcame his own addiction and channeled his compulsion into a desirable direction as a reporter of Internet gaming and gaming culture.
Communication addiction disorder CAD is a supposed behavioral disorder related to the necessity of being in constant communication with other people, even when there is no practical necessity for such communication. CAD has been linked to Internet addiction. Users become addicted to one-on-one or group communication in the form of social support, relationships, and entertainment. However, interference with these activities can result in conflict and guilt.
This kind of addiction is called problematic social media use. Social network addiction is a dependence of people by connection, updating, and control of their and their friend's social network page.
Virtual-reality addiction is an addiction to the use of virtual reality or virtual, immersive environments. Currently, interactive virtual media such as social networks are referred addiiction as virtual reality,  whereas future virtual reality refers to computer-simulated, immersive environments or worlds. Experts warn about the dangers of virtual realityand compare the use of virtual reality both in its how to cure a chocolate addiction and future form to the use of drugs, bringing with these comparisons the concern that, like drugs, users could possibly become addicted to virtual reality.
Video streaming addiction is an addiction to watching video content online. This can include TV shows, movies, short video clips and other content. Each person's experience is unique but may people who have this addiction also display addictive relationship with offline video content too such as television, DVDs, VHS tapes, etc.
Addicts often display binge behaviour. With more development of binging sites such as Netflix, Stan, and Foxtel, more people start binging movies and TV shows everyday, only contributing to this addiction. It is argued that interpersonal difficulties such as introversion, chocoltae problems,  and poor face-to-face communication skills,  often lead to internet addiction. Internet-based relationships offer a safe alternative for people with aforementioned difficulties to escape from the potential rejections and anxieties of addictikn real-life chocolatw.
Individuals who lack sufficient social connection and social support are found to run a higher risk of Internet addiction. They resort to virtual relationships and support to alleviate their loneliness. Prior addictive or psychiatric history are found to influence the likelihood of being addicted to the Internet.
But it is addiciton unclear from existing research which is the cause and which is the effect partially due to the fact that comorbidity is common among Internet addicts.
Internet addicts with no previous significant addictive or psychiatric history are argued to develop an addiction to some of the features of Internet use: anonymity, easy accessibility, and its interactive nature.
Parental educational level, age at first use of the Internet, and the frequency of using social networking sites and gaming sites are found to be positively associated with excessive Internet use among adolescents in some European countries, as well as in the USA. Diagnosis of Internet addiction disorder is empirically difficult. Various screening instruments have been what is muscle pain a symptom of to detect Internet addiction disorder.
Current diagnoses are faced with multiple obstacles. Given the newness of the Internet and the inconsistent definition of Internet addiction disorder, practical diagnosis is far from clear-cut.
With the first research initiated by Kimberly S. Young inthe scientific study of Internet addiction has merely existed for more than 20 chocopate. Most of the criteria cbocolate by research are adaptations of listed mental disorders e.
Ivan K. Kimberly S. Chocloate proposed one of the first integrated sets cire criteria, Diagnostic Questionnaire YDQto detect Internet addiction. A person who fulfills any five of the eight adapted criteria would be regarded as Internet addicted:   . Beard and Eve M. Wolf further asserted that all of the first five in the order above and at least one of the final three criteria what does maha mean in arabic the order above be met to delineate Internet addiction in order for a more sddiction and objective assessment.
Young further extended her eight-question YDQ assessment to the how to achieve clear skin naturally most widely used Internet Addiction Test IAT   which consists of 20 items with each on a five-point Likert sddiction. Questions included on the IAT expand upon Young's earlier eight-question assessment in greater detail and include questions such as "Do you become defensive or secretive when anyone asks you what you do online?
A complete list of questions can be found how to cure a chocolate addiction Dr. The Test score ranges from 20 to and a higher value indicates a more problematic use of the Internet:. Although the various screening methods are developed from diverse contexts, four dimensions manifest themselves across all instruments:  .
More recently, researchers Mark D. Griffiths and Dr. Jason Addiciton. Northrup and colleagues claim that Internet per se is simply the medium and that the people are in effect addicted to processes facilitated by the Internet. Screening methods that heavily rely on DSM criteria have been accused of lacking consensus by some studies, finding that screening results generated from prior measures rooted in DSM criteria are inconsistent with each other.
Some scholars and practitioners also attempt to define Internet addiction by a single question, typically the time-use of the Internet. Emergent neuroscience studies investigated the influence of problematic, compulsive use of the internet on the human brain.
Young neuroimaging studies revealed that IAD contributes to structural and functional abnormalities in the human brain, similar to other behavioral and substance additions.
Therefore, objective non-invasive neuroimaging can contribute to the preliminary diagnosis and treatment of IAD. Using Electroencephalography EEG readings allows identifying abnormalities in the electrical activity of the human brain caused by IAD. Studies revealed that individuals suffering from IAD predominantly demonstrate increased activity in the theta and gamma band and decreased deltaalphaand beta activity.
As many scholars have pointed out, the Internet serves merely as a medium through which tasks of divergent nature can be accomplished. Young asserts that Internet addiction is a broad term which can be decomposed into several subtypes of behavior and impulse control problems, namely, .
For a more detailed description of related disorders please refer to the related disorders section above. Current interventions and strategies used as treatments for Internet addiction stem from those practiced in substance abuse disorder.
In the absence of "methodologically adequate research", treatment programs are not well corroborated. The cognitive behavioral therapy with Internet addicts CBT-IA is developed in analogy to therapies for impulse control disorder. Several key aspects are embedded in this therapy:  . The motivational interviewing approach is developed based on therapies for alcohol abusers. It does not, however, provide patients with solutions or problem solving until patients' decision to change behaviors.
addicted definition: 1. unable to stop taking drugs, or doing something as a habit: 2. unable to stop taking drugs, or. Learn more. Internet addiction disorder (IAD), also known as problematic internet use or pathological internet use, is generally defined as problematic, compulsive use of the internet, that results in significant impairment in an individual's function in various life domains over a prolonged period of datingusaforall.com people are at particular risk of developing internet addiction disorder. addict definition: 1. a person who cannot stop doing or using something, especially something harmful: 2. a person. Learn more.
A chocoholic is a person who craves or compulsively consumes chocolate. It is a portmanteau of "chocolate" and " alcoholic ". Although the concept of a chocolate addiction is still controversial in the medical literature, chocolate especially dark chocolate is considered to have effects on mood  and chocolate confectioneries almost always top the list of foods people say they crave.
The essential components of addiction are intense craving for something, loss of control over the use of it, it also contains high sugar which can lead to addiction and continued use despite negative consequences.
Academic research has shown that people can exhibit all three of these components in relation to food, particularly food that contains sugar or fat. Since chocolate contains both, it is often used in studies of food addiction. In addition to sugar and fat, chocolate contains several substances that can make it feel "addictive".
These include tryptophan , an essential amino acid that is a precursor to serotonin , a neurotransmitter involved in regulating moods. This encourages the user to consume more chocolate due to its ability to make the consumer feel good. Another is phenylethylamine , a neurotransmitter from which amphetamine is derived.
Phenylethylamine is also known to be released by the brain when we fall in love. The natural brain chemical enkephalin is heightened when chocolate is consumed. Enkephalin triggers opioid receptors similar to those triggered by heroin and morphine use. This chemical leads the brain to desire more after chocolate is initially consumed, which can lead to addiction. Anandamide , also found in chocolate, binds to receptors in the brain called the cannabinoid receptor.
The presence of anandamide imitates the psychoactive effects similar to cannabis. A study in the journal Nutrients has shown that despite some evidence that this type of addiction exists, there is no formal diagnosis given in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition DSM-V. A study published in the journal Cell Metabolism proved a correlation between the FGF21 gene and a likeness for sweet foods.
It is also known that there is an association between the FTO gene and intake of sugar and caffeine. The dopamine receptor D2 is also linked to addictive behaviours such as alcohol and drug abuse. Addiction may occur when there is a deficit in the number of dopamine 2 receptors, which gives one the ability to experience pleasure. A study in the Journal of Psychoactive Drugs has shown that the biological children of alcoholic parents are at a higher risk to inherit a preference for sweet foods, including chocolate.
People develop the preference for sweet-tasting foods from birth, as it is related to the taste of mother's milk and the way it provides a sense of calmness to newborns. Even scientists who doubt the existence of true addiction agree that chocolate craving is real. Chocolate is known to regulate an imbalance in the functioning of the neurotransmitter, serotonin, a factor influencing emotional states.
Chocolate's fat and energy contents makes the food a key preference when under stress. Chocolate cravings are also as a result of nutrient deficits. Cravings can be as a result of needing to increase magnesium levels to correct an imbalance in neurotransmitters that work to regulate disposition and digestion. The releasing of insulin to lower blood sugar when sugar is ingested results in a long-term imbalance which results in cravings for sugar in order to raise energy.
Women are especially affected. Studies have shown that those during menstruation or suffering from premenstrual syndrome PMS recorded more severe cravings for foods with high sugar and fat contents, such as chocolate, compared to women at different stages of the menstruation cycle. Cravings for chocolate can also be triggered or stimulated by the senses. It is estimated that chocolate has been consumed for over years.
Most of its history, it has been consumed as a liquid, with it only being developed into a powdered form in the mid s. Chocolate was also seen as intoxicating and stimulating and therefore not appropriate of use by children and women.
Ancient emperors such as Moctezuma II was said to utilise chocolate as an aphrodisiac ,  consuming large amounts before visiting his wives. Chocolate and its psychological effects was kept a secret throughout its origin in Spain during the 16th century, until the early 17th century when Madrid became a hub for fashion and society.
Spanish monks also taught visiting family members the habit of consuming hot chocolate and its health benefits. He applauded smaller doses of chocolate, advising that chocolate consumed as a liquid resulted in consumers feeling revitalised.
Chocolate also had a significant medical use. The drinking of chocolate was seen to improve digestion and heavy stomachs as it was previously known to promote healthy gut bacteria. It was also utilised for treatment for those with wasting diseases such as tuberculosis. Chocolate usage was also linked to its nutritional benefits.
English soldiers based in Jamaica in the 17th century survived on cacao paste dissolved in water with sugar over long periods of time, without showing any decline in strength. It is also known that Indian women would consume it so frequently and in such large amounts that it would become a replacement for meat. There are two factors that contribute to the addictive nature of chocolate.
The first is its sugar and fat contents, and the second is its pharmacological ingredients. The additives of sugar and fat in both milk chocolate and white chocolate trigger sweet taste receptors which releases dopamine and entice consumption to be repeated.
This experience is seen to be more enjoyable compared to dark chocolate which upholds bitter aftertastes. Dark chocolates' high caffeine and theobromine content can cause addiction due to both of their psychological effects. Dark chocolate contains It is estimated that the magnesium levels in white chocolate is 12 times less compared to milk chocolate.
Salsolinol is another psychoactive compound found within chocolate which links to the dopamine receptor D2 and dopamine receptor D3 to the reward centres in the brain. Salsolinol is known to contribute towards a craving for chocolate.
Studies have shown that the concentration of salsolinol in chocolate depends on its cocoa content. White chocolate does not contain cacao or cocoa powder, instead made up of cocoa butter, milk solids, sugar and fat.
It is known that the fat and sugar content in white chocolate is what makes this chocolate addictive. This creates a pleasurable experience for the consumer as there is not grit left on the tongue.
These smoothing processes are referred to as conching. Milk chocolate includes both the psychoactive substances evident in dark chocolate and the sweet-tasting properties in white chocolate.
In combining these two components, milk chocolate is the most preferred by consumers. Implementation of nutritional changes can assist in overcoming a chocolate addiction. Consumption of foods such as proteins and healthy fats prevent large amounts of insulin to be released.
The releasing of excessive amounts of insulin results in chocolate cravings. The amino acid within protein assists in building chemicals such as dopamine, which can help to reduce chocolate cravings. Foods containing fibre can also assist to balance blood sugar and slow digestion.
Increasing consumption of foods rich in iron , works to decrease the body's need for an energy boost through sugar. Eating regular meals also stabilises blood sugar levels. Chocolate cravings can also be linked to stress.
Stress raises blood sugar levels through the hormone cortisol and the releasing of glucose from the liver. A lack of sleep also results in increased sugar consumption as people seek to overcome fatigue. Increasing the number of hours of sleep can assist to reduce the need to consume chocolate.
Studies have shown that consuming artificial sweeteners such as aspartame, saccharin and sucralose increase chocolate cravings. This could include products such as carob. Carob does not contain theobromine or caffeine, both addictive methylxanthine substances.
Reversing an insulin resistance can also work to curb cravings for chocolate. This can be achieved through the consumption of substances such as ginger and turmeric, both working to stimulate the absorption of glucose in the body. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Person who craves chocolate. See also: History of chocolate. See also: Types of chocolate. Psychology portal Food portal.
Retrieved 14 April PMID S2CID Coffee, tea, chocolate, and the brain. ISBN PMC A cross-sectional survey of 13, US adults". Depress Anxiety. In Carr, Tanya; Descheemaeker, Koen eds. Nutrition and Health - Current topics - 3. Antwerpen: Garant. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. Harvard Health Blog. Harvard University. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. Now for the science part". Wales Online.
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