May 29, · However, in the early stages of the disease, most people don’t perceive any symptoms, so it can be hard to tell if you have it. Hepatitis is most commonly caused by . A blood test called a hepatitis C antibody test can tell if you have been infected with the hepatitis C virus—either recently or in the past. If you have a positive antibody test, another blood test is needed to tell if you are still infected or if you were infected in the past and cleared the virus on your own.
Hepatitis C is difficult to diagnose on your own, because it shares symptoms that occur in other common illnesses like the hepayitis and flu. In some cases the symptoms do not present themselves until the hhow has been in the system for years, making the carrier of the disease unaware that they are infected. Symptoms can include tel, joint paint, inflammation, swelling, fever, weight loss and other very general symptoms.
People who share used needles through drug use or those that have multiple sexual partners are at the highest risk for contracting this disease. Hepatitis C is a disease caused by a viral infection, trll is unique in that it attacks the liver and not the immune system like most other viruses.
The immune system of some people is strong enough to completely kill off the disease, but for the vast majority of people it progresses in to a long term infection. This infection usually lasts about 6 months or so, which is plenty of time for the virus to cause serious damage to the liver, causing it to not function properly. When the liver is damaged, things like fat digestion, the breakdown of hormones, and the general detoxification of the blood.
Cirrhosis of the liver is disease where scar tissue develops in the liver. This scar tissue grows over the damaged part of the liver, which further limits its function. As the disease progresses as time goes on, the liver can fail. Liver cancer is another huge health concern, as it is one of the leading causes of cancer related deaths. Most of these cases are from the prolonged damage done to the liver and the formation of scar tissue as a result so it is important to catch f treat this disease early as possible.
Although most people infected with the hepatitis C virus do not die as a result, death from the disease is still a concern. Both cirrhosis and cancer can cause death so it is something to keep in mind.
Hepatitis C is spread through the infection of hrpatitis blood, what to buy with 200 microsoft points it is not as highly contagious as many other viruses like the cold or flu. Similarly to heptitis infected with HIV, you cannot contract the disease from those infected with hepatitis C by touching, hugging or other contact. Most people get the disease through the use of drugs and the sharing of needles, which has led to an epidemic in not just cases of hepatitis C, hepatitiis the outbreak of many other diseases as well.
Another risk factor for contracting the disease is having sex. The first step is to go to your doctor, and to get tested. This will allow them to determine how far how to tell if you have hepatitis c the disease is, how much liver damage is done, and the proper medication to prescribe. Protease inhibitors, polymerase inhibitors, and antiviral medications are the most common drugs prescribed.
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Make sure you get tested early, take your prescriptions and multivitamin tell to best reduce the effects of hepatitis C which over 3 million people in the U. Contents show. Leo Cartland. You may also like. October 9, January 6, December 30, December 13, What are the Impacts of Obesity on Your Nave 29, October 1, January 17,
Getting tested for hepatitis C
A blood test, called an HCV antibody test, is used to find out if someone has ever been infected with the hepatitis C virus. The HCV antibody test, sometimes called the anti-HCV test, looks for antibodies to the hepatitis C virus in blood. Antibodies are chemicals . Dec 09, · Hepatitis C is an infection caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that leads to liver inflammation. Symptoms can be mild for many years, even while liver damage is Author: Ann Pietrangelo. Aug 15, · However, it does not tell you whether you are still infected with hepatitis C. If the antibody test result is positive, you should be tested for hepatitis C RNA (see "Hepatitis C RNA"), which determines whether you are chronically infected. The lab will perform this RNA test automatically if your hepatitis C antibody test is positive.
Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus HCV that primarily affects the liver ;  it is a type of viral hepatitis. HCV is spread primarily by blood-to-blood contact associated with injection drug use , poorly sterilized medical equipment, needlestick injuries in healthcare, and transfusions.
Diagnosis is by blood testing to look for either antibodies to the virus or viral RNA. There is no vaccine against hepatitis C. Most experience minimal or no symptoms during the initial few decades of the infection. Late relapses after apparent cure have been reported, but these can be difficult to distinguish from reinfection. Fatty changes to the liver occur in about half of those infected and are usually present before cirrhosis develops.
Liver cirrhosis may lead to portal hypertension , ascites accumulation of fluid in the abdomen , easy bruising or bleeding , varices enlarged veins, especially in the stomach and esophagus , jaundice , and a syndrome of cognitive impairment known as hepatic encephalopathy. The most common problem due to hepatitis C but not involving the liver is mixed cryoglobulinemia usually the type II form — an inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels.
Persons who have been infected with hepatitis C may appear to clear the virus but remain infected. Several clinical pictures have been associated with this type of infection. The clinical relevance of this form of infection is under investigation. The rate of occult infection in those apparently cured is controversial but appears to be low.
The half life of the virus particles in the serum is around 3 hours and may be as short as 45 minutes. Generally, percutaneous contact with contaminated blood is responsible for most infections; however, the method of transmission is strongly dependent on both a country's geography and economic status. Injection drug use IDU is a major risk factor for hepatitis C in many parts of the world. Blood transfusion , transfusion of blood products, or organ transplants without HCV screening carry significant risks of infection.
Those who have experienced a needle stick injury from someone who was HCV positive have about a 1. Hospital equipment has also been documented as a method of transmission of hepatitis C , including reuse of needles and syringes; multiple-use medication vials; infusion bags; and improperly sterilized surgical equipment, among others. Sexual transmission of hepatitis C is uncommon.
Tattooing is associated with two to threefold increased risk of hepatitis C. The risk also appears to be greater for larger tattoos. Personal-care items such as razors, toothbrushes, and manicuring or pedicuring equipment can be contaminated with blood.
Sharing such items can potentially lead to exposure to HCV. Diagnosing patients is generally a challenge as patients with acute illness generally present with mild, non-specific flu-like symptoms,  while the transition from acute to chronic is sub-clinical.
Testing is not able to distinguish between acute and chronic infections. Hepatitis C testing typically begins with blood testing to detect the presence of antibodies to the HCV, using an enzyme immunoassay. Liver enzymes are variable during the initial part of the infection  and on average begin to rise at seven weeks after infection.
Liver biopsies are used to determine the degree of liver damage present; however, there are risks from the procedure. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC recommends a single screening test for those born between and As of [update] , no approved vaccine protects against contracting hepatitis C. Those with chronic hepatitis C are advised to avoid alcohol and medications toxic to the liver. Prior to , treatments consisted of a combination of pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin for a period of 24 or 48 weeks, depending on HCV genotype.
Several alternative therapies are claimed by their proponents to be helpful for hepatitis C including milk thistle , ginseng , and colloidal silver. The responses to treatment is measured by sustained viral response SVR , defined as the absence of detectable RNA of the hepatitis C virus in blood serum for at least 24 weeks after discontinuing the treatment,  and rapid virological response RVR defined as undetectable levels achieved within four weeks of treatment.
Further studies are needed for a 24 weeks treatment and at lower dosages. The reason for this difference is not known. In England about , people are chronically infected. The total number of people with this infection is higher in some countries in Africa and Asia.
Since , extremely effective medication have been available to eradication the disease in 8—12 weeks in most people. In the mids, Harvey J. Alter , Chief of the Infectious Disease Section in the Department of Transfusion Medicine at the National Institutes of Health , and his research team demonstrated how most post- transfusion hepatitis cases were not due to hepatitis A or B viruses. Despite this discovery, international research efforts to identify the virus, initially called non-A, non-B hepatitis NANBH , failed for the next decade.
Bradley at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , used a novel molecular cloning approach to identify the unknown organism and develop a diagnostic test. Chiron filed for several patents on the virus and its diagnosis. In , Bradley sued Chiron, seeking to invalidate the patent, have himself included as a coinventor, and receive damages and royalty income. He dropped the suit in after losing before an appeals court. Rice , were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work.
Compared with adults, infection in children is much less well understood. In developed countries transmission around the time of birth is now the leading cause of HCV infection. In the absence of virus in the mother's blood transmission seems to be rare. Breastfeeding is considered safe if the nipples are not damaged. Infection around the time of birth in one child does not increase the risk in a subsequent pregnancy. All genotypes appear to have the same risk of transmission.
HCV infection is frequently found in children who have previously been presumed to have non-A, non-B hepatitis and cryptogenic liver disease. The rate of hepatitis C in immunosuppressed people is higher. This is particularly true in those with human immunodeficiency virus infection, recipients of organ transplants , and those with hypogammaglobulinemia. People with stable HIV who never received medication for HCV, may be treated with a combination of peginterferon plus ribavirin with caution to the possible side effects.
As of [update] , there are about one hundred medications in development for hepatitis C. One barrier to finding treatments for hepatitis C is the lack of a suitable animal model. Despite moderate success, research highlights the need for pre-clinical testing in mammalian systems such as mouse , particularly for the development of vaccines in poorer communities.
Chimpanzees remain the only available living system to study, yet their use has ethical concerns and regulatory restrictions. While scientists have made use of human cell culture systems such as hepatocytes, questions have been raised about their accuracy in reflecting the body's response to infection.
One aspect of hepatitis research is to reproduce infections in mammalian models. A strategy is to introduce liver tissues from humans into mice, a technique known as xenotransplantation. This is done by generating chimeric mice, and exposing the mice HCV infection.
This engineering process is known to create humanized mice, and provide opportunities to study hepatitis C within the 3D architectural design of the liver and evaluating antiviral compounds. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Human viral infection. Medical condition. Play media. Main article: Hepatitis C virus. See also: Hepatitis C vaccine.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. July See also: List of people with hepatitis C. Main article: HCV in children and pregnancy. Viral Hepatitis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 28 September Sherris Medical Microbiology 4th ed. McGraw Hill. ISBN Clinics in Liver Disease. PMID Archived from the original on 31 January Retrieved 4 February Chronic hepatitis C infection".
The New England Journal of Medicine. S2CID World Health Organization. Archived from the original on Retrieved National Library of Medicine. April Archived from the original on 2 February March PMC
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