County of London
Greater London is a ceremonial county of England that makes up the majority of the London datingusaforall.com region forms the administrative boundaries of London and is organised into 33 local government districts—the 32 London boroughs and the City of London, which is located within the region but is separate from the datingusaforall.com Greater London Authority, based in Southwark, is Constituent country: England. rows · Feb 07, · This is a list of the counties of the United datingusaforall.com history of local .
Above: Map of Inner London showing the old county boundaries. This article describes the relationship between the City of London and of the four counties that existed for many centuries, until the formation of Metropolitan London.
It is important to grasp the fact that, although the City of London was surrounded by the County of Middlesex, it was never part of Middlesex. It had how do i get ringtones for my iphone 4 own Lord Mayor and its own government. That is why, even today, it has its own Police force and still has its own Lord Mayor who is completely separate from the Mayor of London.
To emphasise the point of the City of London being a separate administration, we will look at an example of Canterbury. Canterbury is the county city of Kent and it is also in the County Kent. Canterbury is not separate from Kent, it is part of the County of Kent — and that has always been the case. Similarly with Norwich being the county city of Norfolk. During the four centuries what does hue mean in texting the Romans occupied Britain, the tribes that had been living on the land long before the Romans arrived, were often displaced by new Roman settlements being built — like Colchester, St Albans, Rochester and Winchester.
However, the tribes continued to live in Britain and, when the Romans withdrew. Then the Saxons came over to England. Over the centuries England was gradually divided into counties.
As has already been mentioned, after the Romans left England, what had been Londonium was eventually to become a Saxon city. Archaeologists now use the name Lundenwic for its name. The Saxons laid out many of the roads in the City that we know today and re-established a port along the riverside, including two docks at Queenhithe and Billingsgate. Anyone living in what we now call Inner London regarded the place where they lived as being within one of the four Counties. On the north side of the Thames was the large County of Middlesex.
Even Westminster was in Middlesex. If you walk to the west side of Parliament Square you will see an ornate building which, sincehas been the home of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The building was originally erected as the Middlesex Guildhall. This is just one example to show that Middlesex covered land in Westminster, right up to the River Thames. They were later absorbed into Metropolitan London. To the east of Middlesex is the County of How to install eclipse cdt on ubuntu. The river still accounts for some of the borough boundaries today — like parts of Hackney and Tower Hamlets.
None of Metropolitan London was within of the County of Essex. On the south side of the Thames was the County of Surrey. The County extended east to an irregular boundary with Kent.
The boundary ran south from the Thames, through New Cross along Jerningham Road near Telegraph Hillcrossing land now laid out as Horniman Gardens there is a short road called Surrey Mount near Horniman Gardens and then running near the line of the road called Sydenham Hill.
Rotherhithe, Peckham and Nunhead were all near the Surrey border until what time did the boston massacre start were absorbed into Metropolitan London.
To the east of Surrey was the County of Kent. Like Like. Thank you for your interest in the Know Your London Website. As you mention, the boundary between Surrey and Kent is a bit of a problem to understand. I am afraid I am not going to much help because there are so many questions to sort out how to build a stone patio with fire pit to which the historians do have satisfactory answers.
From that point, the county boundary followed parts of parish boundaries, latching onto one parish boundary and then another. Because much of the boundary ran across land that was high including Crystal Palacethere were no streams to form a simple boundary. The larger the scale of the map you look at, the easier it is to see where the county boundary ran but you need a pre map. Of course, nobody knows the answer. I am sorry I cannot be more precise.
Many thanks. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account.
You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed. Know Your London. A good place to find out about the history of Inner London.
Skip to content. London — The Counties Posted on 22 September what is a compound object adrianprockter. City of London It is important to grasp the fact that, although the City of London was surrounded by the County of Middlesex, it was never part of Middlesex. The Counties During the four centuries that the Romans occupied Britain, the tribes that had been living on the land long before the Romans arrived, were often displaced by new Roman settlements being built — like Colchester, St Albans, Rochester and Winchester.
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The City of London is a city, ceremonial county and local government district that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of datingusaforall.com constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, but the modern city named London has since grown far beyond the City of London datingusaforall.comy: England. 92 rows · May 14, · Greater London is not a county; it has City of London, London Borough . Sep 22, · Around London, there are four Counties to be considered – Middlesex, Essex, Surrey and Kent. As has already been mentioned, after the Romans left England, what had been Londonium was eventually to become a Saxon city. Archaeologists now use the name Lundenwic for its name.
The counties of England are areas used for different purposes, which include administrative, geographical, cultural and political demarcation.
The term 'county' is defined in several ways and can apply to similar or the same areas used by each of these demarcation structures. The current arrangement is the result of incremental reform. The original county structure has its origins in the Middle Ages. The Local Government Act created new areas for organising local government that it called administrative counties and county boroughs.
These administrative areas adopted the names of, and closely resembled the areas of, the traditional counties. Later legislative changes to the new local government structure led to greater distinction between the traditional and the administrative counties. The Local Government Act abolished the act, its administrative counties and county boroughs. Many of the names of the traditional counties were still being used now for the administrative counties.
Later legislation created yet further area differences between the administrative counties and the traditional counties. As of , for the purpose of administration, England outside Greater London and the Isles of Scilly is divided into 82 metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties.
The Lieutenancies Act created areas to be used for the purpose of the Lieutenancies Act. These newly created areas are called ceremonial counties and are based on, but not always the same as, the areas of the administrative counties. For the purpose of sorting and delivering mail, England was divided into 48 postal counties until ; they were then abandoned by Royal Mail in favour of postcodes.
The term 'county', relating to any of its meanings, is used as the geographical basis for a number of institutions such as police and fire services,  sports clubs and other non-government organisations. Cumbria , Hertfordshire , Norfolk , Northamptonshire, Oxfordshire , Suffolk, Surrey , Warwickshire, West Sussex and Worcestershire are non-metropolitan counties of multiple districts with a county council.
In these counties most services are provided by the county council and the district councils have a more limited role. Their areas each correspond exactly to ceremonial counties. There are six metropolitan counties which are based on the major English conurbations ; and they also correspond exactly to a ceremonial county and have multiple districts, but do not have county councils.
In these counties the district councils provide the majority of services. Similarly, Berkshire is a non-metropolitan county with no county council and multiple districts and maps directly to a ceremonial county. Bristol , Herefordshire , Isle of Wight , Northumberland and Rutland are ceremonial counties consisting of a non-metropolitan county of a single district, and are known as unitary authorities. Buckinghamshire , Cambridgeshire , Derbyshire , Devon , East Sussex , Essex , Gloucestershire , Hampshire , Kent , Lancashire , Leicestershire , Lincolnshire , North Yorkshire , Nottinghamshire , Somerset and Staffordshire are non-metropolitan counties with multiple districts and a county council, where one or more districts have been split off to form unitary authorities.
The effect is that the corresponding ceremonial county is larger than the non-metropolitan county of the same name and the county council is responsible for providing services in only part of the county. In Cornwall , Dorset , Durham , East Riding of Yorkshire , Shropshire and Wiltshire the bulk of the area is a unitary authority which shares the name of the ceremonial county and the rest of county is part of one or more other unitary authorities.
In total, there are 39 unitary authorities that do not have the same name as any of the ceremonial counties. Bedfordshire and Cheshire are counties that consist of a number of unitary authorities, none of which has the same name as the ceremonial county. The City of London and Greater London are anomalous as ceremonial counties that do not correspond to any metropolitan or non-metropolitan counties, and pre-date their creation.
The metropolitan counties have passenger transport executives to manage public transport, a role undertaken by the local authorities of non-metropolitan counties and Transport for London in Greater London. Large ceremonial counties often correspond to a single police force. For example, the four unitary authorities which make up Cheshire correspond to the same area as the Cheshire Constabulary. Some counties are grouped together for this purpose, such as Northumberland with Tyne and Wear to form the Northumbria Police area.
In other areas a group of unitary authorities in several counties are grouped together to form police force areas, such as the Cleveland Police and Humberside Police. The fire service is operated on a similar county basis, and the ambulance service is organised by the regions of England. Most ceremonial counties form part of a single region, although Lincolnshire and North Yorkshire are divided between regions. Economic development is delivered using the regions, as is strategic planning.
As of , the largest county by area is North Yorkshire and the smallest is the City of London. The smallest county with multiple districts is Tyne and Wear and the smallest non-metropolitan county with a county council is Buckinghamshire. The county with the highest population is Greater London and the lowest is the City of London. Greater London and the metropolitan counties are all in the 15 largest by population and the 15 smallest by area.
Greater London has the highest population density, while the lowest is found in Northumberland. By area, the largest ceremonial county consisting of a single-district non-metropolitan county is Northumberland and the smallest is Bristol. By population the largest such county is Bristol and the smallest is Rutland. Slough is the smallest unitary authority by area that is not also a ceremonial county and Cheshire East is the largest.
Hartlepool is the smallest such unitary authority by population and Cheshire West and Chester is the largest. The sui generis Isles of Scilly is smaller both in terms of area and population. The highest population density of any metropolitan or non-metropolitan county is found in Portsmouth and the lowest is found in Northumberland.
Most English counties were established in the Middle Ages sometime between the 7th and 11th centuries. The early divisions form most of the current counties, albeit with adapted boundaries.
Some larger counties were divided early on for many purposes, including Yorkshire into Ridings , Lincolnshire into Parts and Sussex into East and West. In , the Great Reform Act divided larger counties for parliamentary purposes. Changes in the administration of the Poor Law in and later the implementation of sanitary authorities caused the use of traditional divisions for civil administration to wane.
The like-named and broadly similarly shaped registration counties existed for these purposes from and were used for census reporting from to Their boundaries differed from existing counties as they were formed from the combined areas of smaller registration districts , which crossed historic county boundaries. By the late nineteenth century, there was increasing pressure to reform the structure of English counties. A boundary commission was appointed in to review all English and Welsh counties, and a Local Government Bill was introduced to parliament in the following year.
The resulting Local Government Act divided the counties into administrative counties , controlled by county councils and independent areas known as county boroughs. The county councils took over many of the functions of the Quarter Sessions courts, as well as being given further powers over the years. The counties used for purposes other than local government, such as lieutenancy , also changed, being either a single administrative county or a grouping of administrative counties and associated county boroughs.
The one exception was the City of London , which alone among counties corporate retained a separate lieutenancy and although part of the administrative County of London was also a county of itself for all other purposes. In legislation after the unqualified use of the term "county" refers to these entities, although the informal term "geographical county" was also used to distinguish them from administrative counties.
They were shown on Ordnance Survey maps of the time under both titles, and are equivalent to the modern ceremonial counties. There were considerable boundary changes between the counties over the years, with areas being exchanged and suburban areas in one county being annexed by county boroughs in another. A major realignment came in , when the boundaries between Gloucestershire , Warwickshire, and Worcestershire were adjusted by the Provisional Order Confirmation Gloucestershire, Warwickshire and Worcestershire Act which transferred 26 parishes between the three counties, largely to eliminate exclaves.
A Local Government Boundary Commission was set up in with the power to merge, create or divide all existing administrative counties and county boroughs. If the commission's recommendations had been carried out the county map of England would have been completely redrawn.
The review process was instead abandoned after the general election. The major outcomes of the work of the commissions came in The original County of London was abolished and was replaced by the Greater London administrative area, which also included most of the remaining part of Middlesex and areas formerly part of Surrey, Kent, Essex and Hertfordshire ; Huntingdonshire was merged with the Soke of Peterborough to form Huntingdon and Peterborough , and the original Cambridgeshire was merged with the Isle of Ely to form Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely.
A Royal Commission on Local Government in England was set up in and reported in , and broadly recommended the complete redrawing of local government areas in England, abandoning the existing counties. Due to a change in government, the report did not translate into legislation. On 1 April , the Local Government Act came into force. This abolished the existing local government structure of administrative counties and county boroughs in England and Wales outside Greater London, replacing it with a new entirely 'two-tier' system.
It created a new set of 45 counties, six of which were metropolitan and 39 of which were non-metropolitan. The historic county boundaries were retained wherever it was practicable. However, some of the counties established by the Act were entirely new, such as Avon , Cleveland , Cumbria, Hereford and Worcester , and Humberside , along with the new metropolitan counties of Greater Manchester , Merseyside , South Yorkshire , Tyne and Wear , West Midlands and West Yorkshire ; based on the major conurbations.
The abolition of the county boroughs resulted in the distinction made between the counties for lieutenancy and those for county councils becoming unnecessary. Section of the Act adopted the new counties for ceremonial and judicial purposes, replacing the previous non-administrative counties. The Royal Mail was unable to follow the changes to county boundaries in and due to cost constraints and because several new counties had names that were too similar to post towns. Additionally, a number of anomalies were created where villages with a post town in another county took the county of the post town for postal addressing purposes.
This meant that for directing the mail, England was divided into a somewhat different set of county boundaries from those established in the reforms. There was also a series of official county name abbreviations sanctioned for use. The use of these postal counties was abandoned by the Royal Mail in The metropolitan counties ceased to have county councils in and a further reform in the s allowed the creation of non-metropolitan counties of a single district.
These became known as unitary authorities and effectively re-established county boroughs. The reform caused the geographic counties to be defined separately once again, and they became known as ceremonial counties. As well as unitary authorities covering large towns, some small counties such as Rutland and Herefordshire were re-established as unitary authorities. In unitary authorities were created to replace each of the county councils of Cornwall, County Durham, Northumberland, Shropshire and Wiltshire.
Bedfordshire and Cheshire were thus abolished as non-metropolitan counties but are retained as ceremonial counties, divided between their unitary authorities. In and , further structural changes have been made or are planned. There is no well-established series of official symbols or flags covering all the counties. From the newly-created county councils could apply to the College of Arms for coats of arms , often incorporating traditional symbols associated with the county.
This practice continued as new county councils were created in and However these armorial bearings belong to the incorporated body of the county council and not to the geographic area of the counties themselves. As county councils have been abolished, and unitary authorities have been carved out, some of these symbols have become obsolete or effectively no longer represent the whole ceremonial county.
A recent series of flags , with varying levels of official adoption, have been established in many of the counties by competition or public poll.
County days are a recent innovation in some areas. There are seventeen first-class county cricket teams that are based on historical English counties. The 18th first-class cricket county is Glamorgan in Wales.
There are also nineteen minor county teams.
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