Switzerland from 1848 to the present
Sep 29, · The Articles of Confederation gave the states, rather than the federal government, the power to collect taxes. To fund the war effort and keep the federal government running, Congress could request financial contributions, called requisitions, from the states but the states were obliged to contribute and rarely did. In practice, none of the goals were accomplished. The confederation was weakened in after Massachusetts refused to join an expedition against New Netherland during the First Anglo-Dutch War, although it regained importance during King Philip's War in It was dissolved after numerous colonial charters were revoked in the early s.
The year was a decisive turning point in Swiss history. Although internal conflict was not wholly eliminated thereafter, it was always settled within the framework of the federal constitution. Enjoying internal political stability and spared from war—phenomena unmatched elsewhere in Europe—the Swiss focused much of their attention and efforts on developing industry, agriculture, communications, and the financial sector.
The result was an extensive network of small and medium-sized lines that were barely coordinated but covered more than miles 1, km of track by and twice that amount by The Swiss eventually voted in to nationalize the main lines, and in the Swiss Federal Railways Schweizerische Bundesbahnen was formed.
After 10 years of excavation, marked by labour unrest and the death of some workers, the 9. In the early years of the 20th century, the mile km Simplon Tunnel and the 9-mile Six other large commercial banks were also established in the s. Because these banks were mainly interested in large investments, reformers stimulated the creation of cantonal banks to provide credit for the general public. Another effect of the quick development of rail and maritime transportation was the growing importation of cheap cereals, which plunged Swiss agriculture into crisis.
In more than half the grain consumed was produced domestically, but by that measure stood at about one-fifth; in the same period, the number of Swiss employed in agriculture dropped from more than half to one-fourth.
In the economic depression of the s, the textile industry also lost its predominant position, while other export industries e. Even radical politicians started to regard armed but cautious neutrality as the appropriate role for a small country bounded by bellicose and increasingly stronger monarchies.
This neutrality was maintained during the Franco-German War —71in which the problems of interning a French army on Swiss soil eventually led to military reforms along the Prussian model without abolishing the principle of a militia army.
Domestic challenges rather than foreign ones were typical during this period. Economic development caused a malaise among different social groups; for example, labourers suffered from difficult working conditions, and the precapitalist elites, rural masses, and urban craftsmen all were losing their traditional sources of income.
Although they had different needs and goals, they all sought greater popular participation in government. After similar success in other cantons, the reform movement passed at the national level the Factory Act ofwhich heavily involved the federal government in social welfare for the first time.
In an alliance of the new democratic party and the dominant radical-liberal groups secured passage of a revised federal constitution. The constitution introduced a substantial innovation: direct democracy became possible through referendum and was reinforced in through initiativethe right for citizens to place an issue before the public if they how to make hoop earrings with beading wire able to secure enough signatures.
The new constitution also strengthened federal power over the army and in the areas of social and economic legislation and justice. Such centralist measures met with the opposition of not only the conservative cantons but also the francophone minority; together they managed to defeat a first draft for an amended constitution in While the Protestant French-speaking cantons now voted for the changed constitution, the Catholic minority had responded to its defeat by systematically and successfully using the referendum weapon in the name of cantonal rights against any bill that could be deemed a unitarian measure.
To avoid such obstruction and to give the bourgeois position more weight against the growing socialist movement, the dominant bloc of how to set up wirless router, radicals, and democrats approached the conservativesand in the first member of the Catholic conservative party joined the Federal Council. Videos Images Audio. Additional Info. Load Previous Page. Switzerland from to the present The year was a decisive turning point in Swiss history.
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Switzerland - Switzerland - Switzerland from to the present: The year was a decisive turning point in Swiss history. Although internal conflict was not wholly eliminated thereafter, it was always settled within the framework of the federal constitution. The liberals and radicals, who completely dominated the state in the 19th century and remained a leading force into the 21st. Jul 15, · Others weren't so lucky. Only three men — two rebels and one loyalist — were killed in the early stages of the rebellion. But many captured rebels were later executed by the government. (See also The Early American Republic and the –38 Canadian Rebellions; Rebellion in Upper Canada.). The OFC qualification for the FIFA World Cup saw teams of the Oceania Football Confederation competing for a place in the finals held in Brazil Format. The initial format was scheduled to begin in August at the Pacific There were goals scored in 36 games, for an average of goals per game.
Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Together, they dominated the elected Legislative Assembly. Since the s, they had peacefully opposed the authority of the Catholic Church. See also: Francophone-Anglophone Relations. Their political demands, which included democratic pleas for responsible government , were rejected in London.
Meanwhile, French Canadian farmers suffered through an economic depression in the s. In the urban areas, tensions rose between French Canadians and the anglophone minority. All of this led to protest rallies across the colony and calls for armed insurrection from the more radical Patriotes.
There were two outbursts of violence. The first was in November Patriote rebels fought trained British regulars and anglophone volunteers in a series of skirmishes. The defeat of the disorganized rebels was followed by widespread anglophone looting and burning of French-Canadian settlements.
Papineau and other rebel leaders fled to the United States. With the help of American volunteers , a second rebellion was launched in November However, it too was poorly organized and was quickly put down.
It was followed by further looting and devastation in the countryside. The two uprisings left people dead, all of them rebels except for 27 British soldiers.
Nearly rebels were captured. After the second uprising failed, Papineau left the US for exile in Paris. See also: Rebellion in Lower Canada. The insurgency in Lower Canada inspired anglophone radicals in Upper Canada to take their own action against the Crown. Their revolt was smaller and less deadly.
The Scottish -born newspaper publisher and politician was a fierce critic of the Family Compact. The Compact was an elite clique of officials and businessmen who ran the colony, largely through a system of patronage. Mackenzie and his followers also opposed a system of land grants that favoured settlers from Britain over those with ties to the United States, many of whom were also denied political rights.
In , after years of failed efforts at peaceful change, Mackenzie convinced his most radical followers to try and seize control of the government and declare the colony a republic. On 5 December, several hundred poorly armed and organized rebels marched south on Yonge Street. They exchanged gunfire with a smaller group of militia loyal to the Crown. The bulk of the rebel force fled in a state of confusion once the firing started.
Three days later, the remaining rebel group was dispersed from the tavern by loyalists. They included about Black soldiers under the command of Colonel Samuel Jarvis. Hundreds of Black Canadians volunteered for service during the rebellions. There was a small, second confrontation soon after in Brantford. The insurgents were once again dispersed. Mackenzie and other rebel leaders fled with about followers to the US. With the help of American volunteers, the various rebel groups launched raids against Upper Canada.
This kept the border in a state of turmoil for nearly a year. With the support of Americans who wished to liberate Canada from British rule, Mackenzie took control of Navy Island in the Niagara River , just upriver from the falls. He proclaimed a republic of Upper Canada.
He was forced to withdraw on 14 January, after Canadian volunteers burned the rebel ship, Caroline. The insurgency fizzled after Mackenzie spent years in exile in New York. He returned to Canada following a government pardon in See: Amnesty Act. Others weren't so lucky. Only three men — two rebels and one loyalist — were killed in the early stages of the rebellion. But many captured rebels were later executed by the government.
Historians have disagreed about how much popular support each rebellion received, and to what degree the uprisings were necessary. One argument is that the rebellions were the inevitable result of undemocratic, unworkable colonial systems, and that the imperial government in London was out of touch and unsympathetic to reform.
Another view is that the insurgencies amounted to pointless bloodletting, which may have even slowed the pace of reform. One fact is clear: the rebellions prompted the appointment of Lord Durham and the writing of the Durham Report. It recommended the two colonies be united as one. The Province of Canada came into being in This in turn led to the introduction of responsible government.
Although the rebel leaders were thwarted in their goals, Papineau and Mackenzie each found a place in history as unlikely folk heroes who fought bravely, if not carefully, for democratic ideals. They worked together across language lines to bring democratic reform and self-government to the newly united Canada. Search The Canadian Encyclopedia.
Remember me. I forgot my password. Why sign up? Create Account. Suggest an Edit. Enter your suggested edit s to this article in the form field below. Accessed 22 April In The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Article published July 15, ; Last Edited October 04, The Canadian Encyclopedia , s.
Thank you for your submission Our team will be reviewing your submission and get back to you with any further questions. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. Article by Phillip A. In and , insurgents in Upper and Lower Canada led rebellions against the Crown and the political status quo. The revolt in Lower Canada was more serious and violent than the rebellion in Upper Canada.
However, both events inspired the pivotal Durham Report. It led to the Act of Union , which merged the two colonies into the Province of Canada. It also resulted in the introduction of responsible government. These were critical events on the road to Canadian nationhood. It led to the Act of Union, which merged the two colonies into the Province of Canada.
Henri Julien, [libre de droit]s. Further Reading J. Careless , The Union of the Canadas Cross and R. Rosa W. Langstone, Responsible Government in Canada Colin Read and Ronald J. Stagg, The Rebellion of in Upper Canada Careless, ed. Suggest an edit. Phillip A.
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